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However, no computer can process the near infinite number of atoms in objects, so instead we model 'finite' groups of them. In the real world, everything that occurs results from the interaction between atoms (and sub-particles of those atoms). If we were to simulate the world in a computer, we would have to simulate this interaction based on the simple laws of physics. Domenico Prattichizzo,, and Antonio Bicchi,"Dynamic "Analysis of Mobility and Graspability of General Manipulation Systems" IEEE transactions on robotics and automation, vol. This paper presents a review of PSO application in Economic Load Dispatch problems. IJERA MENU CALL FOR PAPER PAPER SUBMISSION WHY CHOOSE IJERA AUTHOR INSTRUCTIONS STATISTICS UNIVERSITY AFFILIATES CHECK PAPER STATUS FAQ IJERA CONTENTS CURRENT ISSUE IJERA ARCHIVE SPECIAL ISSUE CALL FOR CONFERENCE UPCOMING CONFERENCE SPECIAL ISSUE ARCHIVE DOWNLOADS MODEL PAPER COPY RIGHT FORM COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT JOURNAL ETHICS OPEN ACCESS OPEN ACCESS Abstract: Hydraulic cylinder actuators are used extensively in industrial, construction and agricultural works. Palmberg, "Separate controls of meter-in and meter-out orifices in mobile hydraulic systems," SAE transactions, vol. The small sized outlet ports of the cylinders resist the flow of discharged oil; and as a result the piston motion is slowed down. This causes a lot of heat generation and energy loss within the actuators. The study investigates and analyzes the possibilities of reducing the hydraulic resistance and increasing efficiency of the hydraulic actuator. Conventional hydraulic cylinders are simulated in FLUENT. Singh, "Derivation of design requirements for optimization of a high performance hydrostatic actuation system," International Journal of Fluid Power, vol.
Yuhui Shi and Russell Eberhart "A modified particle swarm optimizer" 0- 7803-4869-9198 0.0001998 IEEE. Results show that the hydraulic resistance is significantly reduced in the proposed four ports actuators; and the proposed cylinders run faster than the conventional cylinders and a considerable amount of energyis saved as well. Key words: Computational Hydraulic, Energy Efficient Actuators, Energy Saving in Hydraulic, Hydraulic Control Reference  P. Krus, "On Load Sensing Fluid Power Systems," Division of Fluid Power Control Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linkoping University, Sweden, 1988. Palmberg, "Hydraulic transformers-comparison of different designs," 2004.
A new hydraulic system was proposed as a solution to relieve the hydraulic resistance in the actuators.